Do you have type 2 diabetes? Do you live within a reasonable driving distance to Hamilton? If so, visit our study website for more information. You could be eligible to participate in a type 2 diabetes clinical trial. I, Dr. Tytus, am the primary investigator on this trial and will ensure you are taken well care of during the whole process. If you can answer YES to the following questions, you are one step closer to taking control of your type 2 diabetes and your life!
- Are you over 18 years old?
- Have you had type 2 diabetes for at least 6 months?
- Are you currently being treated with a once daily insulin?
- Do you have high blood sugar?
- Are you currently being treated with metformin?
If you answered yes to all five questions above, you may be eligible to participate in my clinical trial in Hamilton. Visit the website above to take a very short survey, or call us at (905) 545-1376 ext. 215 and ask for my study coordinator, Christine.
Facts About Diabetes!
Did you know that diabetes kills more people annually than AIDS and breast cancer combined? Also, that by the year 2030, approximately 10% of the world’s adult population will be diagnosed with a type of diabetes? Now let’s look a little closer to home. An astonishing 74% of adults in Hamilton and the surrounding region are overweight or obese, compared to 59% of adults in the rest of Canada. Also, approximately 26% of children in Canada, age two to seventeen, are obese or overweight. This is a huge contributing factor to the rise in diabetes. From the years 1998 to 2008, the amount of diagnosed diabetics increased by around 70% among Canadians. The age group affected the most was between 35 and 44 years of age. In 2008 to 2009, that single year alone, over 200,000 Canadians were diagnosed with diabetes for the first time. Studies have predicted that if mortality rates and incidences are continuously seen at levels they were at in 2008/2009, we can expect the number of Canadians living with diabetes to hit approximately 3.7 million by 2018/2019. Data suggests that almost 2.4 million Canadians were living with diabetes in 2008/09 during the time of that prediction, however those were just actual diagnosed cases. Due to data collected from blood samples, researchers claim that around 20% of diabetes cases remain undiagnosed. Like many other diseases, the prevalence increased with age. More than half of Canadians that have been diagnosed with diabetes are of working age, between the age of 25 and 64 years old. Also, males are more likely to be diagnosed with diabetes than women are, with approximately 7.2% of males in Canada, as oppose to 6.4% of females in Canada.
Can you believe that around $40.7 million in direct health care costs goes to obesity and obesity related diseases in Hamilton alone? In Ontario, the estimated cost of diabetes is $5.6 billion. As of 2013, the diabetes prevalence in Ontario is estimated at 9.4%, which is expected to rise to close to 12% by 2020. This means that the estimated number of people in Ontario living with diabetes is over 1.3 million. That number is predicted to rise to over 1.9 million by the year 2020. A factor that could be influencing diabetes in Ontario is the fact that Ontario is considered home to the majority of immigrants from populations that are at higher risk of developing diabetes. Some of these ethnic groups include Southeast Asian, South Asian, Chinese, African and Hispanic decent. This could also be an explanation for the high prevalence increase of diabetes in Ontario. Compared to other parts of Canada, Ontario also has a higher rate of overweight and obesity cases, which explains our high rate of diabetes since obesity and diabetes are closely related.
Almost 4% of the population of Ontarians that have diabetes, live in Hamilton. There are almost 50,000 people living with diabetes in Hamilton as of last year. This puts Hamilton in the fifth spot in all of Ontario for having the fifth largest diabetic population in the province, behind Toronto, Mississauga, Ottawa and Brampton. In the United States the statistics are much worse. Around 26 million children and adults, almost 9% of the population, are living with diabetes. Although, approximately only 19 million have been officially diagnosed whereas 7 million do not know they have diabetes. This number of people diagnosed with diabetes has gone up from 1.5 million in 1958 to almost 19 million in 2010, an increase of epidemic proportions. 79 million adult Americans are estimated to be living with pre-diabetes because their blood glucose levels are higher than normal, but not quite high enough to be considered diabetes. Type 1 diabetes, previously named juvenile-onset or insulin-dependent diabetes, accounts for only around 5% to 10% of all diagnosed cases of diabetes in adults. This means that the rest, 90-95%, of all the adults diagnosed with diabetes have type 2 diabetes, or what was previously known as adult-onset or non-insulin-dependent.
Type 2 Diabetes
What exactly is type 2 diabetes? We know the large majority of the diabetic population lives with type 2 diabetes and even though it used to be called adult-onset, it is increasingly being diagnosed in adolescents and children. Type 2 diabetes is serious! Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder, which is a combination of conditions such as, a high blood sugar level, increased blood pressure, abnormal cholesterol levels and excess body fat around the waist. It is when all of these conditions occur together that your risk of stroke, heart disease and diabetes increases significantly. Having one of these conditions doesn’t necessarily mean you have metabolic disorder, however each of these conditions will still individually increase your risk of serious disease. Type 2 diabetes is characterized by high blood glucose in terms of insulin resistance and insulin deficiency. The most common symptoms are frequent urination, excessive weight loss, constant hunger and excess thirst. The primary cause of type 2 diabetes is obesity, mainly in people who are genetically predisposed to the disease. Type 2 diabetes is associated with a life expectancy ten years shorter than the average. This is mainly due to the number of complications that often occur with a type 2 diabetic including: a 20-fold increase in limb amputations in the lower body, two to four times the risk of cardiovascular disease and increase rate of hospitalizations. Type 2 diabetes is the main cause of non-traumatic blindness and kidney failure in the developed world. Experts have also made a connection with the disease and an increased risk of cognitive dysfunction and dementia through disease processes such as Alzheimer’s and vascular dementia.
Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 diabetes was formerly known as insulin dependent diabetes or juvenile diabetes. A large reason for that is the fact that it was most commonly diagnosed in children. Type 1 diabetes is a form of diabetes mellitus that stems from autoimmune destruction of the cells in the pancreas that produce insulin. Insulin is a hormone produced by the body that takes sugar from food, and turns it into energy for the body. In most cases, if type 1 diabetes goes untreated, it is ultimately fatal. However, type 1 diabetes can be controlled with insulin by injection daily or through various other options such as an insulin pump. The positive side of this insulin injection is that treatment doesn’t usually impair regular day to day activities, and generally patients are taught how to manage their disease independently. For some people, that poses as a huge challenge. High blood sugar and low blood sugar can both cause complications. High blood sugar may cause fatigue and long-term damage to organs whereas low blood sugar can cause episodes of unconsciousness and seizures.
Gestational diabetes is a condition that develops in women during pregnancy, who do not have a previous diabetes diagnosis. When the insulin receptors do not properly function, gestational diabetes is the result. 3-10% of pregnancies are affected by gestational diabetes on average, but vary depending on the population. It is very important to see your obstetrics doctor regularly while pregnant in general, but especially when you are dealing with gestational diabetes. When gestational diabetes goes untreated, it can lead to the baby being born with increased risk of running into issues such as low blood sugar, jaundice and various delivery complications. It is also possible for untreated gestational diabetes to cause stillbirth or seizures. Women with gestational diabetes that isn’t being controlled, have a larger risk of developing type 2 diabetes mellitus after giving birth, and childhood obesity is more common amongst these children. A modified diet and moderate exercise are recommended ways to manage and control your blood glucose levels, however in some cases the mother requires antibiotics, including insulin. Gestational diabetes usually goes away once the mother gives birth. If you are currently pregnant with gestational diabetes, or at risk to develop gestational diabetes (especially if you are before your third trimester), you should visit a specialist in high risk obstetrics.
Diet and Exercise to Prevent Diabetes
Did you know that 93% of children/youth and 85% of adults are not receiving the recommended amount of physical activity? Recent studies show that Canadians of all ages are weaker, heavier and less fit than we were a generation ago. Lifestyle factors are crucial when trying to prevent type 2 diabetes. Obesity, stress, urbanization, lack of physical activity and poor diet are amongst the most correlated factors when it comes to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus. For example, 30% of cases with Chinese and Japanese descent, 60-80% of cases with European and African descent and 100% of Pima Indians and Pacific Islanders all had excess body fat associated largely with developing type 2 diabetes. Consuming too many sugar-sweetened drinks is also related to a higher risk. The type of fats you eat is also very important to your risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Saturated fats and trans fatty acids are ‘bad’ fats that increase the risk, whereas monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fat are actually known to lower the risk. Research has found that 7% of the cases of type 2 diabetes are due to a lack of exercise. Regular exercise is linked to benefit so many different health issues, including but not limited to, weight loss, stress and depression, while improving your self confidence and self esteem.
Type 2 Diabetes Might Raise Risk of Liver Cancer
According to a long-term, large study, people with type 2 diabetes might be at a higher risk of developing liver cancer. The study suggests that, compared to those without diabetes, people with type 2 diabetes are at a two to three times greater risk of having hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), which is the most common type of liver cancer, especially in minorities. In the Latino study, there were an estimated 26% of liver cancer cases. In the Hawaiian study, 20% of cases were attributed to diabetes. Among blacks of different nationalities, the investigators saw an estimated 13% of cases, and 12% of cases within the Japanese-Americans were attributed to diabetes. The rate was lowest among Caucasians with a rate of 6%. Although the risks of developing liver cancer are higher among type 2 diabetics, it is still very low. Liver cancer is a rare disease, even though it has been on rise worldwide. Latinos and blacks have experienced the biggest increase. Diabetes is also linked to a higher risk of developing pancreatic cancer, which in many ways makes sense since it’s the pancreas that produces insulin.
A condition called “fatty liver” is something type 2 diabetics often develop as well. This is when the liver becomes inflamed because it has trouble managing the abundance of fat in its cells. Fatty liver can create a whole new level of issues, such as fibrosis, cirrhosis and, ultimately cancer. This fatty liver disease is the primary cause of hepatocellular carcinoma.
Please visit discoverclinicaltrials.com for more information on diabetes, cholesterol and triglycerides and many more clinical research trials going on in your city. You may be eligible to participate in a phase 3 trial, while taking the first step in controlling your health!